The women also cultivated watermelons, pumpkins, corn, later grain, etc. The Apaches participate in many religious dances, including the rain dance, dances for the crop and harvest, and a spirit dance. Another technique was the relay method where hunters positioned at various points would chase the prey in turns in order to tire the animal. Most Southern Athabascan "gods" are personified natural forces that run through the universe. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French, essentially meaning an outlaw.. After being relocated to the Camp Verde Reservation, on the Verde River near Camp Verde, the Yavapai and Tonto Apache began to construct irrigation systems (including a five-mile (8 km) long ditch). Brugge, David M. (1983). Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache, Naisha, Naʼishandine) are headquartered in Southwest Oklahoma. Twenty years later, some of the Tonto Tribe returned to the Payson area. The Chiricahua language has four different words for grandparent: -chú[note 2] "maternal grandmother", -tsúyé "maternal grandfather", -chʼiné "paternal grandmother", -nálé "paternal grandfather". Early American settlers often referred to all natives in the region as Tonto Apaches or Mohave Apaches. Gunnerson, James H. (1979). in which he overturns social convention. Tonto Apache Tribe Payson, Arizona. With the smallest land base of any reservation in the state of Arizona, it serves about 100 tribal members of the 140 total; 110 are enrolled tribal members. Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: -daʼá̱á̱ "maternal uncle (mother's brother)", -béjéé "paternal aunt (father's sister). Tiller, Veronica E. (1983). Today, legislation is pending to provide them with trust title to the land on which they reside. Dudley, U.S. Army troops made the people, young and old, walk through winter-flooded rivers, mountain passes and narrow canyon trails to get to the Indian Agency at San Carlos, 180 miles (290 km) away. The Kiowa Apache retain their own language. In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. Tsé Nołtłʼizhn' (Apache name) or in Yavapai: Hakayopa clan (‚Cottonwood People‘); Tsé Nołtłʼizhn' (Apache name) or in Yavapai: Hichapulvapa clan (‚bunch-of-wood-sticking-up People‘); in English simply known as, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 17:24. Historically, they followed the Kiowa. Other writers have used this term to refer to all non-Navajo Apachean peoples living west of the Rio Grande (thus failing to distinguish the Chiricahua from the other Apacheans). The Fort Apache, San Carlos, Yavapai-Apache, Tonto Apache, and the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian reservations are home to the majority of Western Apache and are the bases of their federally recognized tribes. The dome-shaped dwelling or wickiup, the usual home type for all the Chiricahua bands, has already been described ... Said a Central Chiricahua informant. Fuerte), leader of the Warm Springs Mimbreño Apaches, was killed by Mexican soldiers near Janos, and his son Cuchillo Negro (Black Knife) became the principal chief and war leader. ), Southern Tonto (lived in the Tonto Basin from the Salt River in south northward along and over the East Verde River, including the Sierra Ancha, Bradshaw Mountains and Mazatzal Mountains – like the Northern Tonto Apache with the Wi:pukba/Wipukepaya – they formed with the Guwevkabaya/Kwevkepaya bands of Yavapai bilingual mixed-tribal Southern Tonto Apache-Guwevkabaya/Kwevkepaya bands with common headmen. , The fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills, probably bolstered by dime novels, was widely known among Europeans. They reported the Pueblo exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, and hides and materials for stone tools. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Though raiding had been a traditional way of life for the Apache, Mexican settlers objected to their stock being stolen. These have often been distorted through misunderstanding of their cultures, as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso: Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico.  They made buckskin shirts, ponchos, skirts and moccasins and decorated them with colorful beadwork. Important standardized ceremonies include the puberty ceremony (Sunrise Dance) of young women, Navajo chants, Jicarilla "long-life" ceremonies, and Plains Apache "sacred-bundle" ceremonies. . These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: -ʼnííh "mother or maternal aunt (mother's sister)", -kaʼéé "father or paternal uncle (father's brother)".  A less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon". Seymour, Deni J. paču meaning "Navajos" (the plural of paču "Navajo"). They were also called Plains Lipan (Golgahį́į́, Kó'l kukä'ⁿ, "Prairie Men"), not to be confused with Lipiyánes or Le Panis (French for the Pawnee). The Western Apache groups, adjacent Tonto Apache bands and Chiricahua bands lived in relative peace with each other. These natives are called Querechos. A parent's siblings are classified together regardless of sex: -ghúyé "maternal aunt or uncle (mother's brother or sister)", -deedééʼ "paternal aunt or uncle (father's brother or sister)". The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system. Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage.  The Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. It is seven feet high at the center and approximately eight feet in diameter. Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. These dances were mostly for influencing the weather and enriching their food resources. In 1900, the US government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Jicarilla, Mescalero, San Carlos, Tonto, and White Mountain Apache. For waterproofing, pieces of hide are thrown over the outer hatching, and in rainy weather, if a fire is not needed, even the smoke hole is covered. Additional information can be requested by mailing a request to the Tonto Apache Tribal Police Department. Tonto translation in English-Navajo dictionary. Many Apache ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. In the mid-16th century, these mobile groups lived in tents, hunted bison and other game, and used dogs to pull travois loaded with their possessions. Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms. All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. If one is a female, then one's brother is called -´-ląh and one's sister is called -kʼis. The Guwevka'ba:ya or Southeastern Yavapai on Fort McDowell Reservation call themselves Aba:ja (″The People"). When war happened, the Spanish would send troops; after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty," and both sides would go home.  These functioned well enough for them to reap sufficient harvests, making the tribe relatively self-sufficient. Minks, weasels, wildcats and wolves were not eaten but hunted for their body parts. , By the early 1900s, the Yavapai were drifting away from the San Carlos Reservation. All Apache peoples lived in extended family units (or family clusters); they usually lived close together, with each nuclear family in separate dwellings. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Other items include: salt obtained from caves and honey. The Tonto Apache Tribe was federally recognized by Congressional Act in 1972. Gatewood, Charles B. "The Apachean culture pattern and its origins", in A. Ortiz (Ed.). Spanish language assistance is available for voters. Coronado observed the Plains people wintering near the Pueblo in established camps. Thus sites where early Southern Athabaskans may have lived are difficult to locate and even more difficult to firmly identify as culturally Southern Athabaskan. The primary game of the Chiricahua was the deer followed by pronghorn. They forced the residents to travel by foot in winter 180 miles (290 km) to the San Carlos Reservation. Over 100,000 English translations of Spanish words and phrases. (2010a) "Contextual Incongruities, Statistical Outliers, and Anomalies: Targeting Inconspicuous Occupational Events". "wild", "crazy", "Those who you don’t understand"). In addition, the Europeans often referred to the Wipukepa and Kwevkepaya incorrectly as the Yavapai Apache or Yuma Apache. Historically, the term was also used for Comanches, Mojaves, Hualapais, and Yavapais, none of whom speak Apache languages. (Band organization was strongest in Chiricahua society). The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. " The six Apache tribes had political independence from each other and even fought against each other. While these subgroups spoke the same language and had kinship ties, Western Apaches considered themselves as separate from each other, according to Goodwin. Thus, -ghúyé also refers to one's opposite-sex sibling's son or daughter (that is, a person will call their maternal aunt -ghúyé and that aunt will call them -ghúyé in return). (1983). They prefer groupings based on bands and clans. The reservation policies of the United States produced conflict and war with the various Apache bands who left the reservations for almost another quarter century. Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language. (2009a) "Nineteenth-Century Apache Wickiups: Historically Documented Models for Archaeological Signatures of the Dwellings of Mobile People". From their sheepraising, the Navajo were able to acquire more European goods in trade, such as blankets, foods, and various tools, which the Tonto lacked. A few children at San Carlos and Ft. Apache speak Western Apache as their first language, but most children and young adults are passive speakers or semi-speakers. posits that they moved into the Southwest from the Great Plains. A white boy named John Reid finds Tonto still alive and cares for him until he heals. Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak. Influenced by the Plains Indians, Western Apaches wore animal hide decorated with seed beads for clothing. In 1875, the Tonto and Yavapai were forcibly moved to the San Carlos Apache Reservation. United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before. They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. For example, one band might be friends with one village and raid another. There is a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱. Other items include: honey from ground hives and hives found within agave, sotol, and narrowleaf yucca plants. Another difference, which could probably not have been noticed at long range, was that the Yavapai were often tattooed, while Apaches seldom had tattoos. In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.. Together, these claimed hunting and gathering areas. 26 likes. Goodwin's formulation: "all those Apache peoples who have lived within the present boundaries of the state of Arizona during historic times with the exception of the Chiricahua, Warm Springs, and allied Apache, and a small band of Apaches known as the Apache Mansos, who lived in the vicinity of Tucson. The Apache waged war with large parties (often clan members), usually to achieve retribution. The principal quarry animals of the Jicarilla were bighorn sheep, buffalo, deer, elk and pronghorn. The Sex Offender Registry website is maintained by the Tonto Apache Tribal Police Department. Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together (that is, matrilocal residence), into which men may enter upon marriage (leaving behind his parents' family). Beavers, minks, muskrats, and weasels were also hunted for their hides and body parts but were not eaten. They dress in the skins of the cattle, with which all the people in this land clothe themselves, and they have very well-constructed tents, made with tanned and greased cowhides, in which they live and which they take along as they follow the cattle. Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the women and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level. The population of Fort McDowell consists mostly of the Guwevka'ba:ya Yavapai as well as other Yavapai groups.. A similar method involved chasing the prey down a steep cliff. The total population of the Tonto Apache Reservation is approximately 140 of which 110 are enrolled tribal … Western Apache Language (Western Apaches) "Western Apache" is one of the two major Apache languages. Soledad, Nell David S (2009). The term Apache refers to six major Apache-speaking groups: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Plains Apache, and Western Apache.  The Chiricahua-type system is used by the Chiricahua, Mescalero, and Western Apache. Ethnological writings describe some major differences between Yavapai and Tonto Apache peoples. Foster, Morris W; & McCollough, Martha. An example of taboo differences: the black bear was a part of the Lipan diet (although not as common as buffalo, deer, or antelope), but the Jicarilla never ate bear because it was considered an evil animal. The peoples raided and warred together against enemy tribes such as the Tohono O'odham and the Akimel O'odham. Western Apache has a number of subdialects: Cibeque, Northern and Southern Tonto… Local groups were headed by a chief, a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. English Translation of “tonto” | The official Collins Italian-English Dictionary online. The Chiricahua living to the south called them Ben-et-dine or binii?e'dine' (“brainless people”, “people without minds”, i.e. Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: -zeedń "cross-cousin (either same-sex or opposite-sex of speaker)", -iłnaaʼaash "male cross-cousin" (only used by male speakers). In a detailed study of New Mexico Catholic Church records, David M. Brugge identifies 15 tribal names which the Spanish used to refer to the Apache. "Navajo and Apache relationships west of the Rio Grande", Schroeder, Albert H. (1974a). To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick. Schroeder, Albert H. (1974c). Most Chiricahua and Mescalero ceremonies were learned through the transmission of personal religious visions, while the Jicarilla and Western Apache used standardized rituals as the more central ceremonial practice. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type. Jay Silverheels as Tonto and Clayton Moore as the Lone Ranger in the original TV series. They were close allies of the Natagés. An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children. However, the Navajo did have "the outfit", a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band. , Apache religious stories relate to two culture heroes (one of the Sun/fire:"Killer-Of-Enemies/Monster Slayer", and one of Water/Moon/thunder: "Child-Of-The-Water/Born For Water") that destroy a number of creatures which are harmful to humankind. The list below is based on Foster and McCollough (2001), Opler (1983b, 1983c, 2001), and de Reuse (1983). Painted designs on faces were different, as were funeral practices. They were first mentioned in 1718 records as being near the newly established town of San Antonio, Texas.. Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache and Yavapai language . (Edited by Louis Kraft). The Tonto Apache Reservation, located south of Payson, Arizona (in Apache: Te-go-suk – “Place of the Yellow Water” or “Place of the Yellow Land”) in ancestral territory of one of the principal Dilzhe'e Apache clans – the “People of the Yellow Speckled Water”, was created in 1972 within the Tonto National Forest northeast of Phoenix. Recent experiments show these dogs may have pulled loads up to 50 lb (20 kg) on long trips, at rates as high as two or three miles per hour (3 to 5 km/h). Other plants include: acorns, agarita berries, amole stalks (roasted and peeled), aspen inner bark (used as a sweetener), bear grass stalks (roasted and peeled), box elder inner bark (used as a sweetener), banana yucca fruit, banana yucca flowers, box elder sap (used as a sweetener), cactus fruits (of various varieties), cattail rootstocks, chokecherries, currants, dropseed grass seeds (used for flatbread), elderberries, gooseberries (Ribes leptanthum and R. pinetorum), grapes, hackberries, hawthorne fruit, and hops (used as condiment). The military usually had forts nearby. Most of them spoke both languages, and the headman of each band usually had two names, one from each tradition. The following Tonto Apache tribes are federally recognized: Together with other groups of the Western Apache they form the additional federally recognized tribes: The name Dilzhę́’é is a Western Apache name that may mean 'people with high-pitched voices', but the etymology is unclear. Some techniques involved using animal head masks worn as a disguise. However, in certain activities, such as the gathering of heavy agave crowns, men helped, although the men's job is usually to hunt animals such as deer, buffalo, and small game. He reported five groups for the Western Apache: Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, San Carlos, and White Mountain. "Western Apache witchcraft". The Tonto Apache Reservation is located on the southern outskirts of Payson, Arizona. A competing theory[who?] English Translation of “tonto” | The official Collins Spanish-English Dictionary online. Goodwin’s Northern Tonto consisted of Bald Mountain, Fossil Creek, Mormon Lake, and Oak Creek bands; Southern Tonto consisted of the Mazatzal band and unidentified “semi-bands”. It consists of 85 acres that was carved out of the Tonto National Forest in 1972. Opler, Morris E. (1983c). Henderson, Richard. Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration. Western Apache include Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, White Mountain and San Carlos groups. The other two Chiricahua bands and the Plains Apache did not grow any crops. Both crowns of both plants were baked and dried. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the 1850s. It consists of the Tonto Apache , San Carlos Apache , and White Mountain Apache dialects, and is sometimes also considered to include Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache .  Other Athabaskan-speaking people in North America continue to reside in Alaska, western Canada, and the Northwest Pacific Coast. These two reservations were combined in 1937, and the people formed the federally recognized Camp Verde Yavapai-Apache Nation. The traditional and sometimes treacherous relationships continued between the villages and bands with the independence of Mexico in 1821. Tonto definition is - one of various subgroups of the Apache people. An archaeological material culture assemblage identified in this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache has been referred to as the "Cerro Rojo complex". This period is sometimes called the Apache Wars. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. , Another story is of a hidden ball game, where good and evil animals decide whether or not the world should be forever dark.  They left behind a more austere set of tools and material goods than other Southwestern cultures. Tonto Apache Nation is a Full Gospel Church Particular types of foods eaten by a group depending upon their respective environment. opposite-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)". The smaller sotol crowns were also important. Tonto, White Mountain, and San Carlos Apache are spoken in Arizona. Fresh deer blood was drunk for good health. Apache languages are tonal languages. As tensions between the Apache and settlers increased, the Mexican government passed laws offering cash rewards for Apache scalps. The Tonto Apache tribe are a Western Apache tribe located in Arizona’s Rim Country. He wrote: After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a 'rancheria' of the Indians who follow these cattle (bison). Hoijer (1938) divided the Apache sub-family into an eastern branch consisting of Jicarilla, Lipan, and Plains Apache and a Western branch consisting of Navajo, Western Apache (San Carlos), Chiricahua, and Mescalero based on the merger of Proto-Apachean *t and *k to k in the Eastern branch.  The Tonto Apache, calling themselves Dilzhe'e, utilized the lands to the north, east and south; while the various Yavapai bands were using country to the north, the west and the south. The Yavapai Wars, or the Tonto Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between the Yavapai and Tonto tribes against the United States in Arizona. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Greenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups (based on his informants' views of dialect and cultural differences): White Mountain, Cibecue, San Carlos, North Tonto, and South Tonto. The Tonto Apache (Dilzhę́’é, also Dilzhe'e, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is one of the groups of Western Apache people. More than 100 Yavapai died during the winter trek. Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier. Thus, as can be seen in the example below, when the Western languages have noun or verb stems that start with t, the related forms in the Eastern languages will start with a k: He later revised his proposal in 1971 when he found that Plains Apache did not participate in the *k̯/*c merger to consider Plains Apache as a language equidistant from the other languages, now called Southwestern Apachean.