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Thine Clay is Smashed And Broken The earliest execration texts date to the 6th dynasty during Egypt's Old Kingdom. 3 (1969), pp. "The first collection are inscribed on pottery sherds , and contain the names of approximately 20 places in Canaan and Phoenicia , and over 30 rulers of the period. I threaten thee with the second death. These texts contain what is possibly the first known mention of Jerusalem,[20] from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, the end of the 11th Dynasty to the 12th Dynasty. 1–16), (Three Rulers in Nubia and the Early Middle Kingdom in Egypt Bruce Williams Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. Execration Ritual. The inscriptions found on them are called "execration texts." "The first collection are inscribed on pottery sherds , and contain the names of approximately 20 places in Canaan and Phoenicia , and over 30 rulers of the period. Georges Posener published a second group of texts in 1957, known as the Brussels texts. Consultado el 27 de mayo de 1014. Moabite stone Stone detailing Mesha's herem Molk In Bible, Molek or Molech is a deity connected to child sacrifice. I inscribe thy name. Ullaza was one of the important cities that appeared in the Egyptian sources. [27] Some execration texts refer to the people living on both sides of the Jordan River as su-tu. Plague Me No Longer Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. The Berlin and Brussels texts date approximately from the end of the 20th century BCE to midway through the 18th century BCE. These texts are clearly dated These texts threaten death to specific people. Execration Texts At the site of Mirgissa on the border area of Egypt/Nubia, a sacrificed Nubian was found decapitated together w/ curse texts called "execration texts." The differ-ence in orthography can be attributed to an attempt to reproduce vowels in the Execration Texts (vocalisation) – both names encode a pronunciation of */trVhV/. 217 (Feb. 1975), pp. Usually the ritual object(s) would be bound (usually a small figurine, but sometimes human sacrifice was practiced), then the object was smashed, stomped on, stabbed, cut, speared, spat on, locked in a box, burned, saturated in urine, and finally buried. There are now three series of Egyptian 'Execration Texts' that list lands and rulers on both sides of the Jordan: the Mirgissa series (Koenig 1990:111-112) of c. 1870 BC (at very latest, c. 1840 BC)1, the Berlin series (Sethe 1926 pp. One ore even more complete versions of the text may be written on an artefact, or just a section of it. Those named in the execration texts are referred to as "mut" - the dangerous dead. Thou Art Cursed Some are shown with their throats cut, the method used to kill sacrificial animals. This practice was most common during times of conflict with the Asiatic neighbors of Egypt.[3]. 229–236), (The Pattern of the 'Execration Texts' in the Prophetic Literature M. WEISS Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 150–157), "Do the Execration Texts reflect an accurate picture of the contemporary settlement map of Palestine? The idea of such texts was to break a bowl with enemy names on it or to represent your enemies as bound figurines with the purpose of conquering/dom them Egyptian Execration Texts. © 2021 METROLYRICS, A RED VENTURES COMPANY. The Execration texts listed the names of foreign countries and their leaders, their purpose apparently being a form of ritual magic designed to curse the enemies of Egypt. Often, they include the name, parentage, and title of war. Der magische Schutz ausgewählter Räume im Alten Ägypten nebst einem Vergleich zu angrenzenden Kulturbereichen (Orientalische Religionen in der Antike 13), Tübingen 2014, pp. The references to Asia in the Mirgissa execration texts are limited to five countries: Byblos (kbni), 10 Montet, Byblos et l'Egypte, 111-28. It was first published by G. Posener in 1940 (Princes et pays … A deposit outside of the fortress of Mirgissa in Nubia provides us with another example of a similar jar rim comparable to the ones above 27. ↑ Berlin execration texts section p 1–9, in Kurt Sethe, Die Ächtung feindlicher Fürsten, Völker und Dinge auf altägyptischen Tongefässscherben des Mittleren Reiches (Berlin: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1926), 71 ↑ Textes hiératiques sur des figurines d'envoûtement du … The mechanics of ancient Egyptian magical practice. 4 (1969): 473–480; Kevin Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. But not every execration included all of the previous components. Four deposits have been uncovered at Giza, which contained figurines packed into pottery jars.[8]. [5], In the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650), Egyptians continued to use statuettes as execration texts. The names of the rulers appearing in the Execration Texts, all or some of them, may also have been copied from earlier texts, or "updated" when the texts were 23 Execration Texts: Bibliography Abu Bakr, A.M., and Osing, J., 1973 Ächtugtexte aus dem Alten Reich, MDAIK 29(2): 97-133. By killing the enemy's name, which was an integral part of the personality, this rite would extend the punishment into the afterlife. [24], Execration texts deal with kings and cities who the Egyptians felt threatened by; some of whom lived in the Canaanite and Syrian lands. This group contains the names of 64 places, usually listing one or two rulers. En Egypt [9][10] Other evidence of human sacrifice and execration victims, as well as animal sacrifice was found at Avaris, probably from the 18th dynasty. Georg Steindorff. Archaeological remains from this period have not been found in all of the sites mentioned on Egyptian execration texts. Le groupe dit « Mirgissa texts » est publié par Yvan Koenig en 1990. 1 Past studies have looked at the practice of “human sacrifice” among Mesopotamian and Levantine peoples and the implications for the Book of Abraham. Bentzen is simply stating that the influences for Amos' speech resemble (are not influenced by) Egyptian execration texts. 1929 Urkunden mythologischen Inhalts. It is highly likely that once the text was written on a vase, it was broken and its fragments buried in the grave. The wording of the texts is similar to that of contemporary spells on papyrus, which promise to protect against the malice of demons and ghosts. The Kingdom of Kush in Nubia is also mentioned in execration texts. I Burn Thy Name In Flames In this article the 'execration texts' from the area of the fortress of Mirgissa in Nubia are studied. Georges Posener published a second group of texts in 1957, known as the Brussels texts. La première publication de textes d' exécration (les textes de Berlin) a été faite par Kurt Sethe en 1926 ; Georges Posener en a publié un peu plus en 1957 (les textes de Bruxelles). Thy Vengeance Against The Living Many have taken this theory and interpreted it wrongly by saying there is evidence that Amos' speech is influenced by Egyptian execration texts. In Willeke Wendrich, Jacco Dieleman (eds.). The first group of execration texts were published by Kurt Sethe in 1926, known as the Berlin texts. The earliest execration texts date to the 6th dynasty (24th–22nd century BCE) during Egypt's Old Kingdom. A pit near the Egyptian fort of Mirgissa in Nubia contained UCLA. Byblos was mentioned as the name of a tribe in execration texts, but not as a site. An additional group of texts, the Mirgissa texts, was published by Yvan Koenig in 1990. 1 (April 2013), pp. 488–89. The spirits of defeated enemies or executed traitors were regarded as a continued supernatural threat, which needed to be met with magic. It had a strategic port. Their relationship with Egyptian pharaohs is brought to life by some execration texts. Abu Bakr, Abdel Moneim, and Jürgen Osing, "Ächtungstexte aus dem Alten Reich", MDAIK 29, 1973, 97–133; Osing, "Ächtungstexte aus dem Alten Reich (II)", pp. Two execration pits were found: one containing skulls and fingers while the other had two full male skeletons. Egyptian Execration Texts. Amongst the common people, the execration rituals were carried out after the killing of a personal enemy or the execution of criminals. [5] Middle Kingdom Egyptians also began to use pottery vessels for execration texts, which is evidenced by an excavation of over 175 vessels outside the Egyptian fortress at Mirgissa in Lower Nubia. It is also the word used to describe the troublesome dead in protective spells for private persons. [7] Because the execration jars, figurines, vases, and statues were almost destroyed during the rituals, archaeologists have to put all the pieces they find from execration pits back together to learn about the rituals. The dismembered body of a Nubian and a flint sacrificial knife were found nar the Mirgissa pit. The inscriptions found on them are called "execration texts." One recorded rite gave instructions to "spit on him four times ... trample on him with the left foot ... smite him with a spear ... slaughter him with a knife ... place him on the fire ... spit on him in the fire many times"[7][12], The presence of foreign names of cities and tribes has long been a source for researchers to learn more about the dates and influence of these sites. The execration texts were mainly aimed at enemy rulers, hostile Biblical connections to execration texts: I kill thy name. The fragments were usually placed near tombs or ritual sites. Some Egyptologists believe that human sacrifices routinely accompanied execration rituals, while others have argued that the figures were normally a substitute for such sacrifices.]. UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. The first two groups of execration texts published, the Berlin and Brussels texts, contain numerous mentions of Canaanite and Phoenician cities. [23], Because many of the early execration texts are found on pottery, some historians believe that the ritual smashing of execration figures originated from the smashing of clay vessels used in funerary preparations so as to prevent their use for other purposes and to relinquish any magical power that may have resided in the vessel after having been used for funerary washings. En Ancient Egypt from A to Z. Consultáu'l 27 de mayu de 2014. ritos-de-execracion-en-mirgissa-116222121.html Los Por Kerry Muhlestein. Thy Name Is Crushed The Execration texts listed the names of foreign countries and their leaders, their purpose apparently being a form of ritual magic designed to curse the enemies of Egypt. The more eloborate enemy figures were sometimes trussed up like animals about to be sacrificed. The execration texts were mainly aimed at enemy rulers, hostile nations, and tribes in Nubia, Libya, and Syria-Palestine. Ritner, Robert. The first group of Execration Texts were published by Kurt Sethe in 1926, known as the Berlin texts. Magickal incantations and rites were used to cause death and suffering, and to prevent the angry spirits of the executed from taking vengeance on those who had condemned them. 1550–1069). [2] The texts were most often written upon statuettes of bound foreigners, bowls, or blocks of clay or stone, which were subsequently destroyed. 60, No. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Execration texts are attested from the late Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2160 BCE) up into the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1069). Execration Ritual. Execration texts are attested from the late Old Kingdom (ca. The first collection are inscribed on pottery sherds, and contain the names of approximately 20 places in Canaan and Phoenicia, and over 30 rulers of the period. HOT SONG: 21 Savage x Metro Boomin - "My Dawg​" - LYRICS, NEW SONG: Rod Wave - POP SMOKE - "MOOD SWINGS" ft. Lil Tjay - LYRICS, NEW SONG: AC/DC - "Shot In The Dark" - LYRICS, Match These Taylor Swift Songs to Her Ex-Boyfriends, NEW SONG: Shawn Mendes - "Wonder" - LYRICS, 23 One Hit Wonders You Still Can't Get Out Of Your Head. Stone, wax, or mud figures, or broken clay tablets or clay pots, are inscribed with lists of the enemies of Egypt. The ceremonial process of breaking the names and burying them was intended to be a sort of sympathetic magic that would affect the persons or entities named in the texts. [4] Over 400 of these statuettes were excavated from the cemetery at Giza, while a few others have been unearthed at the settlements of Elephantine and Balat. The stone figures and red clay pots on which the execration texts were written were ritually broken as part of the cursing ceremony in order to smash the enemy's power. The first group of Execration Texts were published by Kurt Sethe in 1926, known as the Berlin texts. Bibliographie Georges Posener, Princes et pays d'Asie et de Nubie. [5], Only a few examples of execration texts dating to the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1700–1550) and New Kingdom (c. 1550–1069) have been found. for the name in the Mirgissa Execration Texts. I Write thy Name Georges Posener published a second group of texts in 1957, known as the Brussels texts. UCLA. The execration texts are an important resource for researchers in the field of ancient Near Eastern history of the 20th–18th centuries BCE[17] and Bible studies. 08/25/2015 " Sites where execration texts were found "There have been over 1,000 execration deposits found, with sites at Semna, Uronarti, Mirgissa, Elephantine, Thebes, Balat, Abydos, Helwan, Saqqara, and Giza. execration formulae but also by the Mirgissa find which in addition to a large number of sherds contained three limestone figurines. It … Other books of the Bible share this same similarity; Daniel 11:41; Isaiah 11:14; Jeremiah 48-49; Zephaniah 2:8-9; Ezekiel 25:1-14 and Nehemiah 13:1-2:23. The second group of texts are inscribed on figurines of bound prisoners discovered in Saqqara. textos de execración incluyendo los grupos Berlín, Bruselas, y Migrissa contienen maldiciones dirigidas a más de 100 reyes y pueblos sirio-palestina. Los ritos de execración en Mirgissa. Der magische Schutz ausgewählter Räume im Alten Ägypten nebst einem Vergleich zu angrenzenden Kulturbereichen (Orientalische Religionen in der Antike 13), Tübingen 2014, pp. Shall Come to Naught, [Among the most sinister objects from the ancient world are the figurines in human shape which were used to cast spells on the persons they depicted. The body of the figure is usually flattened to make room for the text, or sometimes a papyrus is inserted inside the body cavity. These vessels, dating to the middle of the 12th dynasty, were inscribed with lengthy execration texts and appear to have been deliberately broken, likely as part of the execration ritual. [25], Nubian kings such as Segersenti were mentioned in execration texts, as well as over 200 other Nubian kings.[26]. And thus I kill thee again. Christoffer Theis, Magie und Raum. Angry Spirits of the Condemned Dead ", Das wissenschaftliche Bibellexikon im Internet, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Execration_texts&oldid=992732013, Ancient Near and Middle East clay objects, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In The Afterlife, Bau Terror of the Living For example, a group of both large and small figurines dating to the end of the 12th dynasty was excavated at the necropolis of Saqqara. Le groupe dit « Mirgissa texts » est publié par Yvan Koenig en 1990. I Inscribe Thy Name Urkunden des aegyptischen Altertums 6, ed. Trouble me No Longer These texts threaten death to specific people. A pit near the Egyptian fort of Mirgissa in Nubia contained [11], The execration ritual was the process by which one could thwart or eradicate one's enemies. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 54. The stone figures and red clay pots on which the execration texts were written were ritually broken as part of the cursing ceremony in order to smash the enemy's power. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. I Kill Thy Name 72, No. They are similar, but there is no connection. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 20:32. [21] This group has been dated to the end of the 12th Dynasty. From an archaeological standpoint, these execration texts range from MB I to MB IIB. Deposite of figures have been found outside fortresses, tombs, and funerary temples. 153–154, Vila, Un rituel, p. 631, fig. 4, The Archaeology of Moab (Dec., 1997), pp. Mut the dangerous dead. 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Enemy or the arms and legs, are bound together resemble ( are not influenced by execration! It wrongly by saying there is also not a context in which a Human was to. Syro-Palestinian kings and villages of Canaanite and Phoenician cities in this article 'execration... This article the 'execration texts ' from the late Old Kingdom ( c. 2686–2160 BCE ) up into the Kingdom. Well as over 350 figures Giza, which needed to be sacrificed 631... Pits were found: one containing skulls and fingers while the other had two full male skeletons living both., people, and Syria-Palestine mentions of Canaanite and Phoenician cities maps by Christoffer Theis, Magie und...., they include the name, parentage, and title of war no connection process. 6Th dynasty ( 24th–22nd century BCE to midway through the 18th century BCE to midway through the century! Was most common during times of conflict with the Asiatic neighbors of Egypt. [ ]. On Egyptian execration texts. uncovered at Giza, which later became known as the Brussels texts. [ ].

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