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It has sharp thorns, pale white to yellow heavily fragrant flowers, and vibrant red berries. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Elaeagnus umbellata, commonly called autumn olive or autumnberry, is a large deciduous shrub or small sprawling tree of the Oleaster family that typically matures to 10-16’ tall and to 20-30’ wide. Fully ripe fruits are juicy, sweet and tart, and may be eaten fresh off the shrub, dried or cooked (pies, jams or preserves).The genus name Elaeagnus comes from the Greek words elaia meaning "olive tree" and agnos meaning "chaste" or "pure".The specific epithet ubellata comes from the Latin word umbellatus meaning "bearing umbels" in reference to the flowers appearing in axillary umbels. University of Georgia. Plants have naturalized over time with the current U.S. habitat now primarily including disturbed areas, thickets, forest margins, meadows, fields, roadsides, and fencerows in the central and eastern U.S. Several woody stems/trunks rise up from the base of this shrub, with the largest trunks eventually maturing to as much as 6” in diameter. Autumn Olive was introduced to the US in the 1830's. 2020 Invasive Plant Factsheet: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Autumn Olive's high seed production, as well as its adverse affect on the nitrogen cycle, now threaten native plant communities in many national parks in Virginia. Summary. It was introduced into the U.S. from Japan in 1830, with initial uses including strip mine reclamation areas, ornamental shrub applications and wildlife cover/food. Introduced in 1830 as an ornamental plant that could provide habitat and food to wildlife, Autumn olive was widely planted by the Soil Conservation Service as erosion control near roads and on ridges. It prefers consistently moist soil conditions, but is tolerant of drought. Autumn Olive is a deciduous shrub that can grow quite tall. (Elaeagnaceae) [5,18,19,29,38,46,48,51,57,71,75,77]. Bark on older trunks peels in long, thin, narrow strips. Flowers are fragrant and occur in clusters of white to yellow, 8–9 mm in length and 7 mm in diameter, and have four lobes. Japanese beetles and 17 year locusts feed on the leaves. It can fix nitrogen in its roots. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. In areas where it is not considered to be invasive, it can be used as an effective background plant, screen or informal hedge. The plant is native to China, Korea and Japan. autumn-olive Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. It grows in a range of habitats, including forest edges, savannas, pastures, and prairies. It can fix nitrogen in its roots. Broadleaf evergreen shrub or small tree, 6-12 ft (1.8-3.7 m) high, equal spread, irregular habit, branches often thorny, twigs yellow-brown or silvery. Elaeagnus Umbellata from Burncoose Nurseries available online to buy - Information: vigorous spreading shrub or small tree. Hybrid derived from Elaeagnus pungens. Silver scales are apparent on leaves, buds, and stems. Invasive features of this shrub outweigh its ornamental assets. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Autumn olive is a shrub or small tree that has distinctively silvery leaves. Leaves which are silvery at first maturing to bright green on upper surface. Bloom Description: Slivery white to dull yellow. Leaves are alternate along the stems, ovate to lanceolate, with smooth margins. Autumn Olive - Elaeagnus umbellata - €10 per plant or €13 - 'Brilliant Rose' cultivar The Autumn Olive is fast growing has Nitrogen Fixing capabilities and when planted with fruit trees is said to increase the overall yield of the orchard by 10% whilst themselves producing a yield of delicious berries. We used this plant to stabilize and revegetate road banks and also for strip mine reclamation. The wild olive is a tree mainly cultivated for its fruit, which, in general, is acid and eatable. Leaves are green and distinctly scaly above, silvery and scaly below. When planted right and in the right spot Elaeagnus shrubs are exceptionally easy to grow and care for. Thorns are present, formed on spur branches, and several inches in length. It ripens to red, dotted with silver or brown and is edible. This shrub is now listed as an invasive species in a number of States in the central and eastern U.S. including several States where it has been banned for sale, distribution or cultivation. Native to central Asia, it can tolerate very high summer temperature and low winter temperatures. The fragrant small white flowers reach peak bloom around mid-May. The shrub can grow to a height of 4.5 meters and up to 4 meters wide. Flower: Bell-shaped, 1/2 inch long, very fragrant, lacking petals, yellow-white, appearing in spring. This shrub is native to Asia and was introduced into the U.S. in the 1830's. It has very beautiful bluish green foliage with silver cuffs which turns yellow in autumn. In Greece, it is sweetish-acid and mealy when ripe. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is invasive in California. Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata is naturalized in Texas and other States and is considered an invasive plant in Texas. Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a medium... Synonyms. Features of this species include: (a) speckled, often thorny stems which are silvery or golden brown; (b) leathery elliptic leaves (2-3” long) with entire but often wavy margins which are grayish green with distinctive silver scales on the undersides; (c) fragrant, funnel-shaped, 4-petaled, silvery white to dull yellow flowers (each to 1/3” long) which bloom during the period of late April to early June in clusters (1-4 flowered umbels) drooping from the leaf axils; (d) fleshy, abundant, scale-dotted, edible fruits which ripen to a speckled red in early fall (September-October); (e) abundant seeds, many of which are widely disseminated by birds to often distant locations. Global Invasive Species Database - Elaeagnus umbellata (shrub, tree) IUCN. Elaeagnus umbellata - Thunb. More upright (to 1012 feet high and wide) than its parent, with thornless branches. Invasive Species Specialist Group. The autumn olive shrub is easy to identify when it is in flower or once the fruits have matured. Autumn Olive fruit is red or amber and nutrient rich. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Autumn Olive. It can reach 12-15 feet in height. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Autumn olive is often found in dense impenetrable thickets. Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous shrub found in areas such as E. Asia - China, Japan, Himalayas. Deciduous - elliptic, wavy-margined leaves to 10cm (4in) long.Height - 5m (16ft) Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. I reaaaally enjoy silverberries (which I found out JUST this year).. mmmm thorns and flowers pique my interest. It's native to Korea, Japan, and China. Elaeagnus umbellata – this is a large deciduous variety with silvery foliage and small, fragrant flowers in late spring, followed by red fruits. Tiny, fragrant, silvery owers in fall. These recommendations were quickly retracted, however, as soon as the invasive characteristics of the plant became better known. Silvery yellow-white flowers and silvery fruit. The leaves are simple and alternate and the margins are entire (no teeth). Avoid wet, poorly-drained soils. This is mostly just for my own benefit, but I DO like to share. Elaeagnus umbellata usually grows as a shrub with a widely spreading crown. Fast growing and long-lived, Elaeagnus are most often used in the landscape to form quick natural or formal evergreen hedges and screens. Fragrant white flowers bloom in May, and it reportedly improves soils where it's planted. The leaves are alternate, dark green (young leaves have silvery scales) with entire but wavy margins. It has simple, alternate oval leaves with silvery undersides (but not as silvery as Russian olive). Physical Characteristics. Eleagnus umbellata is an invasive deciduous shrub or small tree that becomes quite competitive even in poor soils. Seeds are dispersed by birds. Their attractive silvery foliage also makes them useful as a large specimen shrub. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is invasive in the Northeast, Southeast and Midwest. Elaeagnus umbellata was first planted as an ornamental tree and for wildlife cover and has now become an invasive species of disturbed sites, mostly in southern Wisconsin. It is native to China, Japan and Korea. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Goumi or Gumi scientifically known as Elaeagnus multiflora are the fruit of the deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub of the Elaeagnaceae family. The fruits are single-seeded and 0.2-0.4 inches in diameter. Elaeagnus umbellata 'Autumn Olive' Autumn Olive is not related to true olives, which depending on how you feel about olives could be a good or bad thing. Autumn olive, scientific name Elaeagnus umbellata, is also called Japanese silverberry, spreading oleaster, autumn elaeagnus, or autumnberry. Autumn olive is a shrub that can grow up to 20 feet tall and 30 feet wide. Autumn olive is an introduced, fast-growing woody shrub in the Elaeagnaceae (Oleaster) family. It threatens native species by out-competing them and interfering with natural nutrient cycling and plant succession. They are high in vitamin A and E, bioactive compounds, minerals, flavonoids and proteins. Used extensively for wildlife habitat, strip mine revegetation, and shelter belts, autumn olive thrives in disturbed areas open to full sun. Before it was labeled a noxious weed, autumn olive was often described as “fragrant” in flower, and as “stunning” in fall, with its bright red berries against its silvery foliage. Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Introduced to the U.S. from Asia, autumn olive is a fast-growing woody shrub or tree that can attain 20 feet in height. It has sharp thorns, pale white to yellow heavily fragrant flowers, and vibrant red berries. Elaeagnus macrophylla – an evergreen shrub, with young, silvery leaves that turn dark green and typically fragrant flowers in autumn, followed by edible fruits in late spring. Trunks/branches have sharp thorns. Wild Olive. Elaeagnus umbellata is a many-branched, deciduous shrubby tree that can grow from 10 to 16 feet. Elaeagnus umbellata is a thorny shrub native to Asia. Kartesz and Meacham recognize the variety Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. The unripe berry is silvery yellow. Winter hardy to USDA Zones 4-9 where it is easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is a deciduous shrub native to Asia that has spread as an invasive species throughout the United States. This is a nitrogen-fixing shrub/small tree that tolerates a wide variety of soils including poor unfavorable ones. Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive fruit (Photo By: VoDeTan2 / Wikimedia Commons) Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub in central and eastern United States.It was introduced in the 1930s and promoted in the 1950s as a great food for wildlife. Eleagnus umbellata is an invasive deciduous shrub or small tree that becomes quite competitive even in poor soils. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Arching trunks produce arching branches which often dip to the ground. The fruit contains high amounts of lycopene. A single autumn olive plant can produce an abundant annual crop of edible fruits (to 80 pounds) containing up to 200,000 seeds. Elaeagnus umbellata grows as a deciduous shrub or small tree, typically up to 3.5 metres (11 ft) tall, with a dense crown. var. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Habitats. Elaeagnaceae. symbol: ELUM Leaf: Alternate, simple, 1 to 3 inches long, 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide, lanceolate in shape with an entire margin. From May to June, it is adorned with very beautiful yellowish white flowers, very fragrant and honey. Undersides of the leaves have a silvery sheen. Leaves are alternate, simple and vary in size. It commonly bears sharp thorns in the form of spur branches. Leaves are 24 inches long; they are silvery on both sides when young, later dark green above and silvery beneath. Species Survival Commission. The ripe berries of the autumn olive tree are crimson in color and have a sweet yet pleasantly tart flavor, making them ideal for use in both savory dishes and dessert recipes. Description Appearance. This deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub or single trunked tree can grow to 20’ or more in height. E. umbellata is a tree of humid temperate climates, tolerant of a broad rainfall range from 400 to 4000 mm per annum though it can only tolerate a short dry season. Elaeagnus umbellata. Europe and northern Asia. This plant is listed as a noxious weed in one or more Midwestern states outside Missouri and should not be moved or grown under conditions that would involve danger of dissemination. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. N.C. It was commonly planted for wildlife food and cover. Autumn olive has been found to easily out-compete, suppress and displace native plants in the landscape through rapid growth, root suckering, and self-seeding, resulting in the creation of dense shady areas that prevent continued growth of nearby plants which require sunny conditions to survive. Elaeagnus umbellata, commonly called autumn olive or autumnberry, is a large deciduous shrub or small sprawling tree of the Oleaster family that typically matures to 10-16’ tall and to 20-30’ wide. Rapid growth, vigorous growing habits, showy-edible fruits and attractive appearance led the U.S. Common Name: Autumn Olive Scientific Name: Elaeagnus umbellata (Thunb.) The fruit … It is native to China, Japan and Korea. It is illegal to purchase, sell or cultivate this shrub in some areas. The currently accepted scientific name for autumn-olive is Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. A member of the Elaeagnaceae family, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb is also known by its common name of Autumn Olive. Elaeagnus umbellata is an erect, often thorny, deciduous shrub with widely spreading branches; it can grow up to 450cm tall and is often somewhat wider [ 11 Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. It's self-fertile, and berries ripen in September. Seeds are dispersed by birds. The Elaeagnus genus (Autumn Olive, Goumi, Silverberry, and Trebizond Date) consists of shrubs and trees that produce fruits with remarkable qualities. Where is this species invasive in the US. Oleaster. 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